Top 10 Snake Movies


Top 10 Snake Movies

 

  • Anaconda

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Anaconda is undoubtedly the best snake movies of all times. The script of the movie and acting skills of every actor has taken the movie to great height. The setting of the film has added to the acting skills and technical brilliance of the entire movie. Though the entire movie has several praiseworthy moments, the death scene at the end deserves special mention.

  • Snake On A Plane

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Snakes on a Plane has received a widespread popularity among the audiences and garnered huge success in the box office. Apart from the presence of hundreds of snakes in the movie, Samuel L. Jackson’s work is also known to be a reason behind the grand success of the movie.

  • Raiders Of The Lost Ark

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Though the film does not have snakes in all part, the brilliant way of introducing snakes in different sections of the movie makes it a must watch. The scenes that involved the cobras and Indy have received an unforgettable place in the hearts of people.

  • Anacondas: The Hunt For The Blood Orchid

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Directed by Dwight H. Little, the sequel of the film Anaconda has also received success in the box office. Anacondas: The Hunt for the Blood Orchid is a horror thriller movie which rotates around the lives of a group of explorer searching for one sacred flower which will give human beings healthier and longer life. It is during their forest expedition that they will have to face tough challenges from the giant snake Anaconda

  • Python

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When it is about snake movies, Python deserves special mention. The horror movie, which was actually made for airing in television, has grabbed the attention of people of different age groups. Wil Wheaton and Jenny McCary showcased excellent performance in the movie.

  • Boa Vs. Python

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Boa vs. Python is one of the most remarkable films of this genre. Boa’s great escape and the governor’s decision to release Python to find Boa is worth watching. The film is also known for the performance by Angel Boris.

  • The Snake King

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Directed by Allan A. Goldstein, The Snake King has a star lineup that includes, Larry Day, Jayne Heitmeyer and Stephen Baldwin. The plot moves round the research team that has been sent to a jungle for find a unique fountain. It is then the team found the snake instead of the fountain and struggled through different odds.

  • Vipers

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Vipers deserve special mention not only for the snake but also for the role of Tara Reid. The plot moves around an organization which has been experimenting on horned vipers to find cancer cure, but things go wrong and the members face the wrath of enraged snakes.

  • Curse II: The Bite

The Bite

Curse II: The Bite is an unforgettable story: not for its plot and the excellent direction but also it is known for its special effects. J.Eddie Peck who portrayed the role of Clark has amazed every audience, but it is the special effects which has given the actual feel to the movie.

  • Hindi Snake Woman Horror

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has a long tradition of movies featuring the fertility spirit/ goddess “Naagin” and recently yet another version, this time written and directed by American Jennifer Lynch, has been added to that long list of films. I’ve heard about this one for a while, and even though most reviews I read don’t exactly make it sound like the best “East meets West” collaboration going, I’ve been curious about it since the first stills and teasers hit the internet about a year ago.

 

 

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The Legend Of Lotus Lentern Chinese Myth


The Legend Of Lotus Lentern

A courageous story of a child rescuing his mother

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There is a Chinese legend about an immortal female named San Shengmu who fell in love with a mortal scholar, Liu Yanchang. Against her brother Erlang’s will, San Shengmu escaped the palace with a magical lotus lantern and came down to Earth

They became man and wife, and lived very happily together. They had a son they named Chen Xiang. Seven years later, Erlang found them by the flashing light from her magical lotus lantern. In order to enforce cosmic rules, Erlang kidnapped Chen Xiang and forced San Shengmu to return the lantern. She gave back the lantern and was also confined under a big mountain, Hua Shan

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While in the celestial palace, Chen Xiang learned of his background and how his mother was imprisoned under a mountain. He had a plan to get the magical lantern back. With some help from others in the palace, he succeeded and escaped from the palace to look for his mother.

It was a long and arduous journey. During the journey, Chen Xiang encountered many tribulations, such as a long desert, falling boulders, an avalanche, earthquakes and a terrifying sandstorm. None of them altered his determination to save his mother. During these experiences, he matured into a brave young man.

Chen Xiang’s perseverance moved the Monkey King. The Monkey King showed him how to get to Hua Shan and gave him a little monkey and a little white dragon to help him. They ran directly to the volcano. With the help of a local tribe, they pushed down Erlang’s stone statue out of which Chen Xiang made a magical axe. When Chen Xiang fought Erlang with that axe, he became very powerful. Just as Erlang was ready to kill him and grab the magical lantern, the lantern’s golden light suddenly penetrated Chen Xiang’s body and the lantern merged with him. Finally, Chen Xiang was able to defeat Erlang.

Chen Xiang split the mountain into half, San Shengmu was rescued and mother and son were united again!

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the other version

 

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She was asking about Sheng Mu and whether she was the god of black magic, but no! She isn’t! Anyway, she’s part of this tale called The Magic Lotus Lantern, or 宝莲灯 (bao lian deng) and it’s a folktale that appeared as early as the Song and Yuan Dynasties! Woo! People keep re-making it, of course.

Anyway, on Mount Hua, there was this Goddess called Sheng Mu [meaning mother of Saints, of course,] and errbody was all, “Guys, if you’re totally in trouble, pray to her so she can help you and shiz,” ‘cause this goddess had a lotus lantern that was super powerful, and she could always make things better for the people.

One day, this scholar dude called Liu Yanchang wanted to take the exams, and prayed to her for good luck. But he was taking bamboo slips (抽签 chou qian) he didn’t get no answer, and was like, mighty disappointed. He was so mad he vandalized the temple.

When San Sheng Mu got back, she was like, so pissed ‘cause he was like, so rude to her! So she got all the gods and goddesses of the wind and rain and weather to torment Liu Yanchang on the way, so much that he actually got sick. When that happened, Sheng Mu and her assistant, Lingzhi was all, “K, I think we better go and help him get better and say sorry now,” which was what they did.

Obviously, they fell in love, and while Liu Yanchang went to take his exams, San Sheng Mu gave birth to a boy called Chenxiang. But the thing is, Er Lang Shen learned that she was married to a mortal, and he totally flipped his shit, ‘cause mortals and immortals aren’t supposed to date. So, while San Sheng Mu was attending to her baby, Er Lang did something really despicable, and like, attacked her while his dog stole the lotus lantern. Now that he had defeated his sis, he locked her in Mount Hua.

But! Lingzhi, the maidservant was still there, so she brought up Chenxiang, and took baby Chenxiang to this dude called the Firebolt immortal. The immortal taught Chenxiang martial arts and some magic powers, which was cool.

When Chenxiang was 15, he had a dream of this woman being chained up, and she said she was his mum, and he was about to go get her, when this general descended between them, and Chenxiang totally had to call him ‘Uncle.’ Then, when he woke up, he totally told the Firebolt immortal about the dream, and the immortal was all, “Well, you are kind of related to immortals,” and he told Chenxiang the whole story.

So obviously, Chenxiang was old enough to go after his mum, which is what he did. While on his way, there was like, thunder and lightning, and Chenxiang saw there was this huge-ass flood dragon in the way. So he whooped dragon ass, the thing exploded, TADA! There was this axe left behind. So Chenxiang unlocked this achievement and like, went on his way .

The axe was like, really useful ‘cause it allowed Chenxiang to climb up Mount Hua, and saw that Er Lang’s dog was totally watching over the lantern, so he fought with the dog and got the lantern back.

Er Lang totally found out what happened, and he and Chenxiang fought. But Chenxiang had been training with the Firebolt Immortal and so defeated his uncle! Woo! All he had to do now was to split open the mountain to get his mum, which is what he did.

He also had to be careful, not to hurt his mum. He got his mum, they walked down the former mountain, and ohmygod, like, Liu Yanchang was waiting for them. Turns out, the Firebolt Immortal found Liu Yanchang and said, “Hey, I think you might wanna see your son and wife,” and Liu Yanchang was all, “Is this shit real?” ‘cause Liu Yanchang had gotten a job as a magistrate and he transferred to the Mount Hua area ‘cause he wanted to be with his wife, but he like, couldn’t find her. What he would do, though, is go to her temple and pray and hope, which was real nice of him.

Er Lang totally had to promise not to bother them anymore, and San Sheng Mu was all, “Meh, I really don’t want to be immortal anyways,” and so, after renouncing her title, she and her family lived together after that.

They became man and wife, and lived very happily together. They had a son they named Chen Xiang. Seven years later, Erlang found them by the flashing light from her magical lotus lantern. In order to enforce cosmic rules, Erlang kidnapped Chen Xiang and forced San Shengmu to return the lantern. She gave back the lantern and was also confined under a big mountain, Hua Shan. – See more at: http://www.chinagaze.com/2013/05/03/chinese-legend-the-magical-lotus-lantern/#sthash.M6DUb0Lw.dpu
There is a Chinese legend about an immortal female named San Shengmu who fell in love with a mortal scholar, Liu Yanchang. Against her brother Erlang’s will, San Shengmu escaped the palace with a magical lotus lantern and came down to Earth. – See more at: http://www.chinagaze.com/2013/05/03/chinese-legend-the-magical-lotus-lantern/#sthash.M6DUb0Lw.dpuf
There is a Chinese legend about an immortal female named San Shengmu who fell in love with a mortal scholar, Liu Yanchang. Against her brother Erlang’s will, San Shengmu escaped the palace with a magical lotus lantern and came down to Earth. – See more at: http://www.chinagaze.com/2013/05/03/chinese-legend-the-magical-lotus-lantern/#sthash.M6DUb0Lw.dpuf

Film Guardian Tak Mau Cuma Jualan Sarah Carter


Film Guardian Tak Mau Cuma Jualan Sarah Carter

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Film Guardian muncul di tengak deretan film aksi lain seperti The Raid 2: Berandal, The Killers, dan film komedi aksi Comic 8. Sang sutradara pun tak takut dengan ramainya film aksi di kuartal pertama Tahun 2014.

“Secara personal situasi industri film seperti ini yang gue tunggu, ada beragam tema dengan high value production dan konten,” kata Helfi Kardit selaku sutradara.

Untuk menarik perhatian penonton, ia memasang aktris Hollywood, Sarah Carter yang pernah bermain dalam film Final Destination 2, Dead or Alive, dan The Vow dalam setiap promosi. Namun, Helfi menegaskan jika Guardian tak hanya menjual popularitas Sarah Carter.

Film ini terbilang film penuh dengan aksi laga. Sebanyak 20 mobil digunakan untuk adegan tabrak-tabrakan.

“Seperti ledakan dan tabrakan yang memukau. Dijamin setelah nonton Guardian akan muncul pertanyaan tentang teknik pembuatannya.” lanjut Herfi.

Selain adegan ledakan dan tabrakan, film ini juga akan menampilkan full body contact. Maka, para pemainnya dibekali latihan bela diri berupa gabungan dari teknik dasar bela diri karate, aikido, serta krav maga.

“Guardian menawarkan paket action yang bukan hanya body contact atau pukul-pukulan tapi ada adegan-adegan fantastik,” jelasnya Herfi.

Film yang rencananya akan dirilis pada 30 April 2014 akan dibintangi oleh Sarah Carter, Dominique Diyose, Belinda Camesi, Tio Pakusadewo, Nino Fernandez, Kimmy Jayanti, Ganindra Bimo, Claudia Soraya, dan Naomi Zaskia.

Mahabarata Story


Mahabarata Story

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he Mahabharata or Mahābhārata (Sanskrit: महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam, pronounced [məɦaːˈbʱaːrət̪əm]) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.

Besides its epic narrative of the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pandava princes, the Mahabharata contains philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four “goals of life” or purusharthas (12.161). Among the principal works and stories in the Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in their own right.

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Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata is attributed to Vyasa. There have been many attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers. The oldest preserved parts of the text are thought to be not much older than around 400 BCE, though the origins of the epic probably fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BCE. The text probably reached its final form by the early Gupta period (c. 4th century). The title may be translated as “the great tale of the Bhārata dynasty”. According to the Mahabharata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called simply Bhārata.

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The Mahabharata is the longest known epic poem and has been described as “the longest poem ever written”. Its longest version consists of over 100,000 shloka or over 200,000 individual verse lines (each shloka is a couplet), and long prose passages. About 1.8 million words in total, the Mahabharata is roughly ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined, or about four times the length of the Ramayana. W. J. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahabharata to world civilization to that of the Bible, the works of Shakespeare, the works of Homer, Greek drama, or the Qur’an.

The other notable version of Mahabarath is Andhra mahabharatam, a Telugu language manuscript written by Kavitrayam {Trinity of Poets) in between 11-14th century AD. The Trinity consists of Nannayya, Tikkana, Yerrapragada.

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The epic is traditionally ascribed to the sage Vyasa, who is also a major character in the epic. Vyasa described it as being itihāsa (history). He also describes the Guru-shishya parampara, which traces all great teachers and their students of the Vedic times.

The first section of the Mahabharata states that it was Ganesha who wrote down the text to Vyasa’s dictation. Ganesha is said to have agreed to write it only if Vyasa never paused in his recitation. Vyasa agrees on condition that Ganesha takes the time to understand what was said before writing it down.

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The epic employs the story within a story structure, otherwise known as frametales, popular in many Indian religious and non-religious works. It is recited by the sage Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa, to the King Janamejaya who is the great-grandson of the Pandava prince Arjuna. The story is then recited again by a professional storyteller named Ugrasrava Sauti, many years later, to an assemblage of sages performing the 12-year sacrifice for the king Saunaka Kulapati in the Naimisha Forest.

The text has been described by some early 20th-century western Indologists as unstructured and chaotic. Hermann Oldenberg supposed that the original poem must once have carried an immense “tragic force” but dismissed the full text as a “horrible chaos.”Moritz Winternitz (Geschichte der indischen Literatur 1909) considered that “only unpoetical theologists and clumsy scribes” could have lumped the parts of disparate origin into an unordered whole.

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Research on the Mahabharata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating layers within the text. Some elements of the present Mahabharata can be traced back to Vedic times. The background to the Mahabharata suggests the origin of the epic occurs “after the very early Vedic period” and before “the first Indian ’empire’ was to rise in the third century B.C.” That this is “a date not too far removed from the 8th or 9th century B.C.” is likely. It is generally agreed that “Unlike the Vedas, which have to be preserved letter-perfect, the epic was a popular work whose reciters would inevitably conform to changes in language and style,” so the earliest ‘surviving’ components of this dynamic text are believed to be no older than the earliest ‘external’ references we have to the epic, which may include an allusion in Panini‘s 4th century BCE grammar Ashtādhyāyī 4:2:56. It is estimated that the Sanskrit text probably reached something of a “final form” by the early Gupta period (about the 4th century CE).Vishnu Sukthankar, editor of the first great critical edition of the Mahabharata, commented: “It is useless to think of reconstructing a fluid text in a literally original shape, on the basis of an archetype and a stemma codicum. What then is possible? Our objective can only be to reconstruct the oldest form of the text which it is possible to reach on the basis of the manuscript material available.”That manuscript evidence is somewhat late, given its material composition and the climate of India, but it is very extensive.

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The Mahabharata itself (1.1.61) distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses: the Bharata proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4) makes a similar distinction. At least three redactions of the text are commonly recognized: Jaya (Victory) with 8,800 verses attributed to Vyasa, Bharata with 24,000 verses as recited by Vaisampayana, and finally the Mahabharata as recited by Ugrasrava Sauti with over 100,000 verses.[15][16] However, some scholars such as John Brockington, argue that Jaya and Bharata refer to the same text, and ascribe the theory of Jaya with 8,800 verses to a misreading of a verse in Adiparvan (1.1.81). The redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18 and 12. The addition of the latest parts may be dated by the absence of the Anushasana-parva and the Virata parva from the “Spitzer manuscript”. The oldest surviving Sanskrit text dates to the Kushan Period (200 CE).

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According to what one character says at Mbh. 1.1.50, there were three versions of the epic, beginning with Manu (1.1.27), Astika (1.3, sub-parva 5) or Vasu (1.57), respectively. These versions would correspond to the addition of one and then another ‘frame’ settings of dialogues. The Vasu version would omit the frame settings and begin with the account of the birth of Vyasa. The astika version would add the sarpasattra and ashvamedha material from Brahmanical literature, introduce the name Mahabharata, and identify Vyasa as the work’s author. The redactors of these additions were probably Pancharatrin scholars who according to Oberlies (1998) likely retained control over the text until its final redaction. Mention of the Huna in the Bhishma-parva however appears to imply that this parva may have been edited around the 4th century.

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The Adi-parva includes the snake sacrifice (sarpasattra) of Janamejaya, explaining its motivation, detailing why all snakes in existence were intended to be destroyed, and why in spite of this, there are still snakes in existence. This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by “thematic attraction” (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have a particularly close connection to Vedic (Brahmana) literature. The Panchavimsha Brahmana (at 25.15.3) enumerates the officiant priests of a sarpasattra among whom the names Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata’s sarpasattra, as well as Takshaka, the name of a snake in the Mahabharata, occur.

Hachiko The Genieus Doggy


Hachiko The Genieus Doggy

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In 1924, HIdesaburo Ueno, a professor in the agriculture department at the University of Tokyo, took in Hachikō, a golden brown Akita, as a pet. During his owner’s life, Hachikō greeted him at the end of each day at the nearby Shibuya Station. The pair continued their daily routine until May 1925, when Professor Ueno did not return. The professor had suffered a Cerebral hemorrhage and died, never returning to the train station where Hachikō was waiting. Each day for the next nine years Hachikō awaited Ueno’s return, appearing precisely when the train was due at the station.

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Hachikō attracted the attention of other commuters. Many of the people who frequented the Shibuya train station had seen Hachikō and Professor Ueno together each day. Initial reactions from the people, especially from those working at the station, were not necessarily friendly. However, after the first appearance of the article about him on October 4, 1932 in Asahi Shimbun, people started to bring Hachikō treats and food to nourish him during his wait

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In 1932 one of Ueno’s students (who developed expertise on the Akita breed) saw the dog at the station and followed him to the Kobayashi home (the home of the former gardener of Professor Ueno—Kikuzaboro Kobayashi) where he learned the history of Hachikō’s life. Shortly after this meeting, the former student published a documented census of Akitas in Japan. His research found only 30 purebred Akitas remaining, including Hachikō from Shibuya Station.

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He returned frequently to visit Hachikō and over the years published several articles about the dog’s remarkable loyalty. In 1932 one of these articles, published in the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun, placed the dog in the national spotlight. Hachikō became a national sensation. His faithfulness to his master’s memory impressed the people of Japan as a spirit of family loyalty all should strive to achieve. Teachers and parents used Hachikō’s vigil as an example for children to follow. A well-known Japanese artist rendered a sculpture of the dog, and throughout the country a new awareness of the Akita breed grew.

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Eventually, Hachikō’s legendary faithfulness became a national symbol of loyalty, particularly to the person and institution of the Emperor.

Hachikō died on March 8, 1935, and was found on a street in Shibuya. In March 2011, scientists settled the cause of death of Hachikō: the dog had terminal cancer and a filaria infection (worms). There were also four yakitori skewers in Hachikō’s stomach, but the skewers did not damage his stomach or cause his death.

Hachikō’s stuffed and mountened remains are kept at the National Science museum of Japan in Ueno, Tokyo.His monument is in Aoyama cemetery in Minatoku, Tokyo.

In April 1934, a bronze statue in his likeness was erected at Shibuya Station (35º39’32.6″N 134º42’2.1″E), and Hachikō himself was present at its unveiling. The statue was recycled for the war effort during World War II. In 1948 The Society for Recreating the Hachikō Statue commissioned Takeshi Ando, son of the original artist, to make a second statue. When the new statue appeared, a dedication ceremony occurred.The new statue, which was erected in August 1948, still stands and is an extremely popular meeting spot. The station entrance near this statue is named “Hachikō-guchi”, meaning “The Hachikō Entrance/Exit”, and is one of Shibuya Station’s five exits.

Each year on April 8, Hachikō’s devotion is honored with a solemn ceremony of remembrance at Tokyo’s Shibuya railroad station. Hundreds of dog lovers often turn out to honor his memory and loyalty.

In 1994, the Nipon Cultural Broadcasting in Japan was able to lift a recording of Hachikō barking from an old record that had been broken into several pieces. A huge advertising campaign ensued and on Saturday, May 28, 1994, 59 years after his death, millions of radio listeners tuned in to hear Hachikō bark.

On 16 June 2012 it was announced by Asahi Shimbun newspaper that rare photos from Hachiko’s life would be shown at the Shibuya Folk and Literary Shirane Memorial Museum in Shibuya Ward until July 22, 2012 as part of the “Shin Shuzo Shiryoten” (Exhibition of newly stored materials).

The japanese time played a practical joke on readers by reporting that the bronze statue was stolen a little before 2:00 AM on April 1, 2007, by “suspected metal thieves”. The false story told a very detailed account of an elaborate theft by men wearing khaki workers’ uniforms who secured the area with orange safety cones and obscured the theft with blue vinyl tarps. The “crime” was allegedly recorded on security cameras.

A similar statue stands in Hachikō’s hometown, in front of Odate Station. In 2004, a new statue of Hachikō was erected on the original stone pedestal from Shibuya in front of the Akita Dog Museum in Odate.

The exact spot where Hachikō waited in the train station is permanently marked with bronze paw-prints and text in Japanese explaining his loyalty.

Sumber wikipedia  : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hachik%C5%8D

Memory Of Geisha – Japanese Actress or negative Image for women who work as n Actress


Memory Of Geisha – Japanese Actress or negative Image for women who work as n Actress

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At the age of nine, Chiyo Sakamoto is taken from her poverty-stricken fishing village of Yoroido on the coast of the Sea of Japan with her older sister Satsu and sold to an okiya (geisha boarding house) in Gion, the most prominent geisha district in Kyoto. Perceived as less attractive in looks and demeanor, Satsu is not sold into the okiya and is instead forced into becoming a prostitute in Kyoto’s pleasure district. Chiyo lives in the okiya alongside another young girl named Pumpkin, the elderly and grumbling Granny, money-obsessed Mother, and Auntie, a failed geisha. Also living in the okiya is the famous and ill-mannered geisha, Hatsumomo. She promptly takes to disliking Chiyo, who she sees as a potential future rival who may threaten her place in the okiya and Gion, as well as Mother’s financial dependence upon her earnings. Hatsumomo begins to go out of her way to get rid of Chiyo.

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One rainy night after returning to the okiya, Chiyo happens upon Hatsumomo engaged in intimate relations with her plebeian boyfriend, Koichi, a livelihood-threatening situation for a geisha, whose air of unattainability is crucial to their allure. The startled and enraged Hatsumomo twists the situation to place blame for a fictional indiscretion on Chiyo. Eventually, Mother learns the truth from Chiyo and though she is punished, Hatsumomo is also banned from seeing Koichi again, increasing her hatred for Chiyo. Despite Pumpkin and Auntie’s warning not to run away, Chiyo plans to leave the okiya and escape the city with Satsu, but is caught when she falls off the roof and breaks her arm. Enraged at her for dishonoring the okiya and incurring further medical costs, Mother stops investing in Chiyo and makes her pay off her increasing debts as a slave, rather than a geisha in training.

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Several years later, a downtrodden Chiyo is given money and a handkerchief in the street by a strange but kind man known at this point only as the Chairman. She donates the money to the Yasaka shrine in Gion, praying to become a geisha in the hopes of entering an exclusive social sphere where she may have a chance of seeing him again, keeping the handkerchief as a memento. Chiyo is somewhat envious of Pumpkin, who is on her way to becoming a geisha under Hatsumomo’s tutelage, while Chiyo still remains a maid under Mother. Pumpkin advances and is given her geisha name as Hatsumiyo but much to Hatsumomo’s dismay, everyone still refers to her as Pumpkin.

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In a startling turn of events for Chiyo, not long after visiting the shrine and during Granny’s funeral, she is taken in as a protégé by Mameha, a rival of Hatsumomo and the owner of a kimono Hatsumomo previously forced Chiyo to ruin. Mameha persuades Mother to reinvest into Chiyo’s training. Chiyo adopts the name of Sayuri for her geisha name, with Mameha acting as her “older sister” and mentor. Mameha mentions that despite Hatsumomo’s popularity, she was in fact a failure due to once angering the mistress of her principal tea house. As a result, she could never obtain a danna to sponsor her independence and she has stayed in the okiya under Mother. It was also revealed that despite her financial contributions, Mother had refused to name Hatsumomo as the heiress of the okiya because she was afraid of the trouble she would bring if named. Everyone believes Hatsumomo would likely throw Mother out, sell off the okiya’s kimono collection, retire and live on the money.

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Hatsumomo continues to go out of her way to ruin Sayuri by tarnishing her reputation in Gion, forcing Mameha and Sayuri to devise a plan to push Hatsumomo out of the Nitta okiya lest Sayuri’s career ultimately die. They arrange for Sayuri’s mizuage (portrayed as a deflowering “ceremony” for maiko as a step to becoming full-fledged geisha) to be bidden upon by several influential men, namely mentor Toshikazu Nobu, the president of Iwamura Electric as well as a close friend Ken Iwamura, who is revealed to be the Chairman; and reputed mizuage specialist “Dr. Crab”, dubbed so by Sayuri due to his appearance. Unfortunately, Hatsumomo learns of the plan and tells Dr. Crab that Sayuri has already been deflowered. However, after gaining back the respect of Dr. Crab by convincing him that Hatsumomo is a known liar, he ultimately wins the bid for Sayuri’s mizuage and she uses his record-breaking payment to cover all of her fees. This leads Mother, who had been poised to adopt Pumpkin as her heiress, to choose Sayuri instead, ultimately destroying the two girls’ friendship. This turn of events enrages both Pumpkin and Hatsumomo for different reasons: Pumpkin was looking forward to the adoption so that she could have some form of security in her old age. Hatsumomo was eagerly anticipating to Pumpkin’s adoption so she could secure her own position as head geisha and drive the up-and-coming Sayuri out of Gion. Hatsumomo’s behavior begins to worsen past all excuse and she is eventually thrown out of the okiya, with Pumpkin leaving soon after.

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Eventually it is revealed Dr. Crab was actually bidding against the Baron, Mameha’s danna, for Sayuri’s mizuage. The Baron had previously tried to sexually assault Sayuri, undressing her against her will at a party, which Mameha had warned against. Nobu instead bids to become Sayuri’s danna, but loses out to General Tottori. At this time, Japan is on the brink of entering World War II and many Geisha are evacuated to other cities to work in factories, which require hard labor and are primary bomb targets. The General is demoted and is unable to use any influence to send Sayuri somewhere safer but Nobu, despite losing respect for Sayuri, is able to send her far north to live with Arashino, a kimono maker. At the end of the war, Nobu visits Sayuri and asks that she return to Gion to help entertain the new Deputy Minister Sato, whose aid can be instrumental in rebuilding Iwamura Electric, the company which the Chairman and Nobu run. Once returning to Gion, Sayuri helps Mother and Auntie clean up the okiya and shows kindness to the new girl they taken in to train under her. She also seeks the help of a homeless Pumpkin who is unhappy to see her again, but eventually agrees to help her entertain the Minister.

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Sayuri, Mameha and Pumpkin entertain the Minister together regularly and within time, Nobu formally begins proposals to become Sayuri’s danna. Sayuri still maintains strong feelings for the Chairman and doesn’t want Nobu to become her danna, so on a weekend trip to the Amami Islands with Iwamura Electric, she plans to seduce the Minister and be caught in humiliation by Nobu. Mameha warns against her plans because it would disrespect him and tells her to accept him as her danna. Sayuri refuses and asks Pumpkin for one last favor to bring Nobu to a theater while she is with the Minister. Pumpkin agrees, but she still harbors resentment towards Sayuri for being adopted by Mother. Upon noticing her feelings towards the Chairman, Pumpkin purposely brings him to the theater instead. Sayuri is upset with her for betraying her because she wanted Nobu there to catch her with the Minister and confronts her for it. An enraged Pumpkin coldly tells Sayuri that she got what she deserved because she stole away her chances to be adopted by Mother, forcing her to be a prostitute in order to survive. She even mentions that she went out of her own way to help Sayuri in the past by making herself look bad in order to embarrass Hatsumomo. Pumpkin revealed that she intentionally brought the Chairman to catch Sayuri seducing the Minister so he will be disgusted by her behavior and she will be forced to accept Nobu as her danna.

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Sayuri eventually meets the Chairman again and reveals that her acts in Amami were for personal reasons. He reveals to Sayuri that he had always had feelings towards her, despite her thinking he didn’t, but explains that he felt it disrespectful to take away the woman his friend had showed so much interest in, especially considering Nobu had once saved the Chairman’s company. He also reveals that he found out the truth after confronting Pumpkin and told Nobu afterwards, causing Nobu to cease becoming Sayuri’s danna. Sayuri and the Chairman kiss, which she feels is her first kiss expressing true love.

Sayuri eventually retires from being a geisha and the Chairman becomes her danna. It is revealed that they have an illegitimate son together. Foreseeing the consequences this could have regarding the inheritance of Iwamura Electric, she relocates to New York City in later life. Here she opens her own small tea house for entertaining Japanese men on business in the United States, in which Mother takes a financial interest, but Sayuri severs her links to the Nitta okiya and in effect, Japan. The Chairman remains her danna until his death and the story concludes with a reflection on Sayuri/Chiyo and her life.

10 Greatest Love Stories in History


10 Greatest Love Stories in History

The stories of lovers who believed in each other and their love even if the whole world was against them still inspire and often, make us sad. A closer investigation of the greatest love stories in history reveals that many of the most famous lovers met a tragic end. They did, however, show us that true love is stronger than anything else in the world. And it is the love that they had we are all hopping to find someday. Of course, with a happier ending.

  • Paris and Helen

Paris and Helen

According to Greek mythology, the love between Paris and Helen provoked the downfall of Troy. The story begins with the Trojan prince Paris being chosen to decide which of three goddesses – Hera, Athena and Aphrodite – is the fairest. He chose Aphrodite because in return she promised him the most beautiful woman in the world. And the most beautiful woman was Helen of Sparta who, however, was married to King Menelaus. A few years later, Paris went to Sparta and took Helen to Troy by which he triggered the Trojan War. Paris was mortally wounded during the fall of Troy, while Helen returned to her husband in Sparta.

  • Cleopatra and Mark Antony

Cleopatra and Mark Antony

The love between the Egyptian pharaoh Cleopatra and Mark Antony went into history for their tragic end. Both committed suicide after they were defeated by the Romans under Octavian (the later Augustus) although Cleopatra hesitated. After Mark Antony’s suicide (he stabbed himself after receiving a false news that his lover was dead), Cleopatra tried to negotiate with Octavian. According to most sources, she killed herself by inducing an asp to bite her when she realized that she cannot “charm” Octavian. Cleopatra and Mark Antony are said to be buried together but the location of their tomb remains a mystery.

  • Orpheus and Eurydice

Orpheus and Eurydice

The ancient Greek mythological hero Orpheus is best known for his beautiful music which charmed everyone, even the stones and wild beasts. But he is also known for his deep love for his wife Eurydice. When she died from a snake bite, Orpheus decided to go to the Underworld and bring her back. With his music, he charmed the gods of the Hades and they allowed him to take Eurydice back with him. But he was told he must not look back until they escape the Underworld. When they reached the portals of Hades, Orpheus turned back to see if Eurydice is following him and she immediately disappeared back in the world of the dead.

  • Tristan and Iseult

Tristan and Iseult

Love story of Tristan and Iseult has been popularized in the 12th century France. It is thought to be inspired by an older Celtic legend. There are several versions of the story about the adulterous lovers but they all more or less follow the same outline. Tristan and Iseult who is supposed to marry Tristan’s uncle King Mark ingest a love potion and fell madly in love on their way to Cornwall. Iseult marries King Mark but the love potion makes the lovers unable to resist each other. They pursue their affair until they are finally caught by Iseult’s husband. They manage to escape death but Iseult is forced to return to Mark. Tristan leaves Cornwall and marries another woman named Iseult. But when he is mortally wounded by a poison lance, he calls for his only true love. The story ends with Tristan dying of despair, convinced that Iseult does not want to come to him, while Iseult dies of grief after finding her lover dead.

  • Lancelot and Guinevere

Lancelot and Guinevere

The story of Lancelot and Guinevere is a part of the Arthurian legend. It is thought to have been inspired or influenced by that of Tristan and Iseult. Just like the latter, Lancelot and Guinevere are adulterous lovers. Guinevere is married to King Arthur who, just like King Mark does not suspect anything at first. He eventually finds out about his wife being unfaithful to him with one of his most loyal knights. The Knights of the Round Table split into two groups, supporting either Arthur or Lancelot. After several fierce battles between the two men, Guinevere returns to King Arthur but the destruction of the Round Table enables Mordred to challenge Arthur. The legendary king kills his rival but he is mortally wounded. Guinevere, devastated for being responsible for the destruction of the Round Table and subsequent Arthur’s downfall enters a convent. Lancelot enters a hermitage and eventually becomes a priest. Both spend the rest of their lives in repentance.

  • Romeo and Juliet

Romeo and Juliet

Probably the most famous love story of all was written by the celebrated English poet and playwright William Shakespeare sometime in the 1590s. Shakespeare’s story of the tragic love between Romeo and Juliet is probably based on Arthur Brooke’s poem The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet that was published in the 1560s. The latter is believed to be an English translation of a novella of Italian writer Matteo Bandello. But even his Romeo and Juliet are not original. The story reveals a major influence of ancient tragic love stories, most notably of the Roman story of Pyramus and Thisbe whose families despise each other and prevent the lovers to be together. Just like Pyramus kills himself, falsely believing that Thisbe is dead, Romeo also commits suicide for mistakenly believing that Juliet is dead. Thisbe follows her lover in death upon discovering his dead body which is exactly what Juliet does when she finds Romeo dead. Both Thisbe and Juliet stab themselves but Romeo, unlike Pyreus who stabs himself with his sword, drinks a poison.

  • Bonnie and Clyde

Bonnie and Clyde

Bonnie and Clyde, lovers and criminals who traveled the Central United States during the Great Depression were not considered as romantic back then as they are today. Their gang was responsible for at least nine police officer and several civilian deaths. It is unsure how the couple met but it is thought that it was love at a first sight. When Bonnie and Clyde met (probably in 1930), the latter already had a criminal record but that obviously did not bother Bonnie. She decided to join him in his criminal undertakings and stayed with him until the very end. They were ambushed by the police in Bienville Parish, Louisiana in 1934 and killed. The couple wanted to be buried together but Bonnie’s family did not allow it.

  • Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal

    Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal

Their names may largely be unfamiliar to most people in the West but their love produced a monument that is famous all over the world – Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal were Mughal Royal couple who shared a loving marriage until Mumtaz died while giving birth to their 14th child. Shah Jahan was devastated by his wife’s death and plunged into deep grief that affected him both emotionally and physically. But his grief inspired him to build one of the world’s greatest architectural masterpieces to serve as the final resting place of his beloved wife. Shortly after completing Taj Mahal, Shah got ill and was overthrown by his eldest son. He spent the rest of his life in house arrest and was buried next to his wife. The legend has it that he planned to build an exact copy of Taj Mahal in black marble on the opposite bank of the river Yamuna but the works never started.

  • Napoleon and Josephine

Napoleon and Josephine

The relationship between Napoleon and Josephine, a six years older widow with two children was turbulent from the very start. Only two days after their wedding day, Napoleon left on a military campaign in Italy. Josephine who stayed behind in Paris soon started an affair with lieutenant Hippolyte Charles. Napoleon was infuriated when he found out about his wife’s infidelity and soon started an affair on his own. No further Josephine’s affairs have been recorded but Napoleon’s love for Josephine was no longer the same. And when it became clear that Josephine is unable to have children, Napoleon decided to divorce her. He thereafter married Marie-Louise of Austria who gave birth to the long-awaited heir. But despite Josephine’s infidelity, divorce and remarriage, Napoleon’s last words are said to be “France, the Army, the Head of the Army, Josephine.”

  • Alexander I of Serbia and Draga Mašin

Alexander I of Serbia and Draga Mašin

The love between Alexander I of Serbia and Draga Mašin appears to had been stronger than themselves. The relationship between the young King and 12 years older widow and lady-in-waiting to his mother caused an outrage in the country. But nothing could stop Alexander from marrying Draga and making her queen, not even his mother who was banished from the country for opposing the marriage. Eventually, the opposition slightly subsided but the situation worsened rapidly for the royal couple after the false pregnancy scandal. The latter seriously undermined the country’s international reputation and infuriated a group of military officers who began to conspire against the royal couple. And when rumors appeared that one of the Queen’s unpopular brothers will be proclaimed the heir to the throne, the conspirators decided to take action. In 1903, a group of military officers invaded the Royal Palace and assassinated the couple.